(2000) Synthese 124 (3).

Physical emergence, diachronic and synchronic

Alexander Rueger

pp. 297-322

This paper explicates two notions of emergencewhich are based on two ways of distinguishinglevels of properties for dynamical systems.Once the levels are defined, the strategies ofcharacterizing the relation of higher level to lower levelproperties as diachronic and synchronic emergenceare the same. In each case, the higher level properties aresaid to be emergent if they are ‘novel’ or ‘irreducible’ with respect to the lower level properties. Novelty andirreducibility are given precise meanings in terms of the effectsthat the change of a bifurcation or perturbation parameterin the system has. (The same strategy can be applied to otherways of separating levels of properties, like themicro/macro distinction.)

Publication details

DOI: 10.1023/A:1005249907425

Full citation:

Rueger, A. (2000). Physical emergence, diachronic and synchronic. Synthese 124 (3), pp. 297-322.

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