Levels of empathy – primary, extended, and reiterated empathy
Concepts such as "theory of mind", "simulation", or "mentalization" have in common that they conceive of social understanding and empathy as a projection onto others of inner modellings or representations. In contrast, Fuchs presents a non-representational concept of primary empathy, based on an embodied and enactive view of intersubjectivity. According to this concept, social understanding is not realized within one individual, but arises in the moment-to-moment interaction of two subjects. To further explicate this perspective, the author examines different levels of empathy and their interrelations: the development of social understanding in early infancy, different forms of extended empathy as enabled by perspective-taking and other cognitive components, and reiterated empathy in which we experience the empathic reaction of others towards ourselves.
Fuchs, T. (2017)., Levels of empathy – primary, extended, and reiterated empathy, in V. Lux & S. Weigel (eds.), Empathy, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 27-47.
This document is unfortunately not available for download at the moment.